Case study has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded “Study on smuggling of migrants: characteristics, responses and cooperation with third countries” which was published in September 2015 by the European Commission. Five case studies served as an information collection tool to contribute to the data collection of the larger study, in order to provide detailed information on the phenomenon of migrant smuggling and policies to address it as occurring in particular countries or along particular route segments.The rationale for the decision on case study countries and route segments covered has been made based on their relevance according to indicators such as the number of irregular migrants apprehended, border type, modus operandi, migration route and relationship with third countries, following the requirements in line with the tender specifications for the Study. In this case study Syria and Lebanon were selected as the countries of departure, with Egypt chosen as a transit country and Italy as the country of first entry to EU. This case study covers the land/air route from Syria and Lebanon to Egypt, as well as the sea route from Egypt to Italy. This case study focuses on the Central Mediterranean sea border route. Please see study here.